The Islamic Nation has agreed that Prophetic Hadith is in
the second importance after the Glorious Quran. Proceeding from the fact that
the Sunna considers the second pillar of this great religion, This Sunna has its
implications and its backgrounds. Since the early years of Islam and through
ages and different deterioration, we find that most scholars of Islam were
interested in the science of Sunna.
Once they worked hard to memorize Hadith, and sometimes
to write it , and sometimes to divide it into sections according to the topics
and the importance and sometimes to indicate the general rules and regulations
by which Hadith is accepted or not ... Thus generated considerable many sciences
and knowledge kept inside the chests of those genius men and were written in
their precious books.
When we say (Sciences of Prophetic Hadith) we mean a
great deal of writings and themes, which filled large areas of the Islamic
library, and considered one of the nation's benefits and advantages for Allah
Definition of the science of Hadith (narrating and
First of all if we want a comprehensive definition of
science of Hadith, we find ourselves compelled to follow the scientists' way in
their division into two sections which are Rewayt Al-Hadith (narrating) and
Drayt AL-Hdith(understanding) the first section contains statements of Prophet peace be upon him and his actions and
narrating Hadith, Seizure and editing words. while the second section is the
science of Hadith Rewaya (which is
called the prophetic hadith) is the science of laws of the matters of Matn and
Sunna.As Abd AL-Fatah Abou Ghada said in his book (profiles of the History of
Sunna and Sciences of Hadith) that the Imam Ali bin Urbanit who died in 234
considers the oldest authers and the most famous Imam in this field.
Also it can be said that: The Imam Shafei Allah's mercy
be upon him who died in 204hijri was the first one who wrote ahadith in his book
(AL-Resala). But the third century AH considers the golden age of writing SUNNA
while the fourth century was the age of collecting Hadith which still the most importance reference
And among the twenty-seventh and tenth century was the
age of maturity, completeness and reach the ultimate goal and completeness.
1. Narrating and
a statement of sciences of Hadith:
If we want from
the other side to explore the science of Hadith we can't do without the
divisions of scientists in particular the divisions of the Prof. Dr. Nour EL-din in his precious book:
(a criticism in Prophetic Hadith), from those divisions:
1) Sciences of
Rowat AL-Hadith: It is regarded to the conditions of the narrator and his
position and when we accept his narrating or refusing it, as there are
conditions to accept the narration or refusing it.
In addition to this in this section of science of Hadith
we deal with identifying companions, their history, degree, names, and
surname In this concern we found Ibn Abd
AL-Bar wrote his book (absorption in the
names of our companions) and Ibn Al Atheer writing (Asad AL-Ghaba fi Marefat
Also we find from sciences of Rowat AL-Hadith knowing
AL-Thekat and AL-Da'if.
From these books(AL-Thekat)by Ibn Hayan,(Tazkaret
AL-Hafez)by AL-Zahaby,(AL-Kamel fe AL-Do'faa)by Ibn Uday,(Mizan AL-I'dedal)by
AL-Zahaby and(AL-Garh wa AL-T'deel)by Hateem AL-Razy and(AL-Garh wa
AL-Ta'Deel)also from the sciences of rowat Prophetic Hadith knowing
Mudalaseen.In this concern we found a lot of books like(AL-Tbyeen fi Asmaa
AL-Mudalaseen)by Burhan AL-Halaby AL-Hafez,(Ta'refat Ahl AL-Tagdees)by Ibn
We found also scientists wrote about the history of
narrators many books as(The Great History).It was also written in the narrators
degrees a book entitle(Big Classes)by Ibn Saad.
2) Sciences of Rewayt AL-Hadith
These sciences includes five types the morals of the
students of Hadith, the manners of talking and how to listen to Hadith and
correcting it. The characteristic of telling Hadith and the way of saying and
writing it, in each type there are many branches.
The student of Hadith should devotes his tension to
Allah, be serious in taking from scientists, apply science, respect his
professors, do his best to help his colleagues and give them advice if they
need, follow the scientific approach and care about terms of Hadith.
On the other hand the person who tells Hadith should be
loyal, correct the faith, have virtues, certified to hadith, stop if he afraid
to fall in mistakes to be the classification and production of hadith his first
As a result of
engaging in composing exit to the nation Sahih AL-Bukhari, Muslim, and Tirmidhi.
The Sunan related by Abu Daud, Tirmidhi ,AL-Nesa'y and Ibn Majah,The books
like Abdul Razzaq and Ibn Abi
Shaybah,The Mustadrak of AL-Hakem. Almsanid ascribed to Imam Ahmad, Musnad Abe
Yala AL-Moussalli, and the parties antiques supervision by the parties to Mzee
and ammunition in succession on the significance of talking points Nabulsi,
dictionaries Macrothesaurus and Middle East and small Of Tiberias, and works for
the University wrote a book Jama assets such as the chatter of the prophet peace
be upon him by Ibn Al Atheer and treasure workers at Sunan words and sayings of
the Indian Muttaqi and the Great Mosque of resettlement, compilations Pluses
pool and fountain Pluses benefits of Haithami and demands global Bzaud Almsanid
eight Ibn Hajar, books graduation monument to the flag chatter Hedaya and Zeila
Mughanni to carry on travel in travel in the graduation ceremony in the
neighbourhood of the Iraqi news summary expert in the graduation talk to Ibn
Al-Rafii large stone and many other.
In total, the muhadditheen had cursed the most attention
sciences familiar story in detail astounds him. There are written sources in
this area. Such as a book (updated line between the narrator and conscious) for
Ramehrmazi and (sufficiently aware of the novel) and (Whole narrator of morality
and ethics Hearer) both the imam and al-Baghdadi (Ermaa story of the assets and
restricting the hearing) for measles.
To accept modern science and his reply: As a result of
this science can determine the validity of the proportion of irrigated talk to
the Prophet peace be upon him or deceit, or judge it good or weakness.
In this modern science is divided into two parts and
acceptable returns, four Qassam talk unacceptable: true, Hessen, and the right
of others, and Hassan to other, and each one of them define and numerous
research, the most important but are not limited to the modern definition of
that right: the recent transfer of Justice Contact Sundh Officer for the officer
to the end justice is not abnormal or explanation.
The confiscation of many of them home and forward Malik
true Imam Abu Abdullah Al-Bukhari and Muslim ibn pilgrims true and correct
peeling Ibn Khuzaymah and true love and son selected for Ziauddin Conclave and
the correct afterthought, extracts them and others.
The yield is the modern types, including weak and
debilitating, and left before the subject, as well as their definition and
It is so weak that the talk is what has a condition
unacceptable to the disruption of modern justice narrator, or control or break
the bond, or anomalies Al, or the presence of provoking the illness or absence
of synergy when it is needed.
The scientists, where the weak rule of modern audiences
work permits in the virtues of work only to set the conditions mentioned. One of
the most modern research yields search modern subject, which is Mokhtlk and
falsely made, and the level of the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him.
And related know the reasons for the situation and
conditions of varieties, and how to combat the situation in the modern means,
and signs of the modern subject, and marks the situation in the narrator or
One of the most important works in a statement
reminiscent established writers (pearls manufactured in conversations designed)
for the resettlement of the book (disliked Sharia filed on conversations heinous
set) to the son of Iraq and we (Al-Manar Muneef in the
correct, weak) to the son of values and (manufactured in the modern theme) of
maintained the shelf.
4) Al Sciences: In an interview with the Al Rasoul Allah
peace be upon him is what ended up with authority to speak. Any text is
transferred to us through a series of narrators.. Says Dr. Noureddine defects in
the curriculum of criticism in modern science: The extrapolation of these types
of modern science and found that it can be divided into three code are:
First Science: Matn in terms of saying.
Second: The science of explaining the board.
Third: Science arose from an interview Al irrigated
novels and other conversations.
Either Al science in terms of saying it four.
First: the modern shrine: It added to the Messenger of
Allah blessings and peace be upon him and assigned to any of his Lord Almighty
said: Allah said... He is not the Koran.
The scientists collect on my conversations in these books
especially (Alathafat Sunni reminiscent Jerusalem) in front of Manaawi.
Second: Modern report: The report of the talk added to
the Prophet peace be upon him by a special act or statement or report or
description, which most recent writings.
This type any talk report includes two other types
joining the former detainee who are talking added to the prophet of Allah Radwan
them, and the lump which was added to the staff.
One source of the modern detained and harvested works
like: (ordered Abdulrazzaq), (Seeded Ibn Abi Shaybah), as well as books that
cared interpretation Mathur (such as the interpretation of Ibn Jarir).
The science Matn mismatch in terms of knowledge of modern
science Ghraib no relation to what happened in terms of the conversations were
vague away from understanding, such as word Alsagb explained in an interview:
(Bsagbh neighbor later), a Allziq (Bukhari and others from Abu Rafie).
The scientists classification meant to explain the
strange considerable attention, including Ibn Al Atheer in writing (end in a
strange talk), Abu Obeid Bin Qasim Peace in writing (strange talk) ..
Science is familiar with Al flag causes and Rod talk,
which is important for understanding the modern, such as the importance know why
disembark for the Holy Koran.
It works in this science book (shine) in front of
Suyooti, and (the statement and the definition of the causes and the role of the
modern-Sharif) for updated son Hamza al-Husseini.
Among those aware of Transcriber modern science and
Among those who wrote it Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Musa Hazmi
in writing (in mind Duplicator and abrogated effects).
Among those aware of the problem of modern science or the
various talk. As opposed to the phenomenon of phantom with the rules meaning
void, or conflict with other legitimate text of which is useful for removing
many similarities to which it relates in some Allowahmin.
The son who wrote it Koutaiba Alnisabure in writing
(interpret various talk) and Abu Jafar Tahhaawi in writing (the problem) and the
son of York in
writing (a problem talking). And others.
Science Authority: It is known that the bond is a series
of narrators who were transferred to talk about one another even attained by the
writer. Ibn al-Fitr: I have a backing of religion. Not for attribution of
religion and said he went from what Allah wills.
This science Popular Assembly:
Division of authority in terms of science communication,
which include modern and mega-related, and Almanan and supplies and serial,
higher and further downward, in related grounds.
The Division of Science authority in terms of dropout
They include a seamless and the sender and suspense, detailed and fraudulent
sender and hidden.
Says Dr. defects: Updated has made very effort to track
evidence and investigated, so they were deported in the country, and toured the
horizon, to find a bond, or to look at the bill difficult to command them.
In this section of many books, including: (chatter
serial) for Schawi and (Almrassel) for Abe Hatem Al-Razi. And (Ngliq comment) to
the son of stone and (inclusive collection of the provisions Almrassel) for Alaa
Hafez, and (more in related discrimination grounds) for the imam al-Baghdadi.
Each one of the Sindh definition of science and research
Perhaps the most amusing things that little in this area
with regard to talk series, which followed the men to refer to no single event
or one novel or narrators, with a modern, may Allah be pleased by Aisha said:
The Messenger of Allah peace be upon him: "It is Alcargmh" ( Narrated by sheikhs
from Abe) and said Aisha, may Allah be pleased by Allah's mercy Lapid, who is to
Another who had lived in kenaf and stayed behind in
Corrosion reprehensible betrayal and faulted up and did
Aisha said: Allah's mercy for Nevertheless, if realized
how our time?. Erwa said bin Zubair narrator of Aisha: the womb of Allah if I
realized how Aisha our time? Thus, the sequence of modern words in which each
Rao: May Allah So if I realize how our time.
It is the modern science Sharif described as a common
bond between the modern and board: It arises from an interview to talk and you
bond with other conversations and other novels to know the number and uniqueness
of talk, then known as agreed or disagreed with others, which could be listed
within three types:
The first type in the uniqueness of the modern, which
includes modern strange, talking individual, and every one of them has sections
and definitions. , Who wrote in this type of Imam Abu Daud Alsjstani in writing
(Sunan), which singled out each year, including the people of his country? As
well as forward Daaraqutni in writing (individuals).
The second type of multi-Narrated by talking with their
agreement, and this includes frequent talk, and famous, and extensive, and
Aziz's, the witness and their respective departments and research as well as
frequent example, is narrated by collecting many believe collusion on lying
about the same to the end of the bond and a sense of the document. One recent
example: "Who wrote deliberately lied to his seat of fire" (Agreed on invasive
and other) has narrated from the Prophet peace be upon him this term a few
It works in this kind of science: a book Suyooti (flowers
scattered in the news frequent) and book (in modern systems scattered across the
frequent) of the mark Kittani, the book (the purposes of good conversations in
the Almsthrh Tongues) for Schawi.
The third type difference in the modern novel, which
included research to increase be rejected, and abnormal saved and evil and known
as the troubled and inverted and the runway and Mus and canned.
And the different narrators’ phenomenon task needed to
search and investigate, what is revealed by the updated benefits of the bond or
Al or two, they might reveal or strengthen Rao talk or so.
For example, in the modern type inverted recall that
scientists months testing done for the updated exam and place a person's ability
to speak, when they had a hundred They tested the Imam Al-Bukhari first got my
heart of Baghdad and were talking, and paid to the spirits of every ten men ten
chatter As sure of the vapour Bgeladsh assigned him the first man from the ten,
responded to his first bonds inverted Al-Bukhari said: I do not know, and then
the second and third, and so on until the end of the century, and Najib
Al-Bukhari: I do not know. Then assigned the second man he did like what I did,
and so did the ten men and Al-Bukhari no more than (I do not know) even if
Barghouti turned to the first of them said: As I was talking with his senses as
well as such and, second, as well as well as his senses, and then reply to the
second man to Fully ten men, so every response from the board was an inverted
percent to talking, all assigned to the board. People have acknowledged the
conservation and the crowds.
And who thousand scientists in this type of modern
science Ibn Hajar in writing (approaching in a statement the troubled (f) of
Chapter arrived on the transport) and the imam al-Baghdadi (reform error
muhadditheen) for Abe Solomon rhetoric and (modern ills) of Rasi and (Altsahev)
for Daaraqutni .
Thus through this Alttua rapid Short in science Hadith
Sharif find that the Islamic nation during successive eras made immense efforts
and strenuous efforts in the service of the foundation's second religion, even
emancipated of any blemish, and free from all Aabh, was all praise Allah became
clear The sun visible.