Ministry of Awqaf & Islamic Affairs :: The Holy Quran Sciences
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The Holy Quran Sciences

Holy Quran

Objectives in the diversity of the Holy Quran Science:

This explanation in science is just one from the various sciences of the Holy Quran, known as the Holy Quran Science. A group of sciences taking place in the orbit of the great Quran weaves around issues and derives its branches and the people thereof. All of which aim to use of service, highlights and clears up around it with the statement of harmony and advantages, defends it from all harm and removes the veil of secrets and meanings. These sciences are almost included within one limit.

The statements of many scientists were different in this matter, some were thinking it was more than needed but some thought it is less, some were satisfied about it and some asked for more. They even made amazing and surprising figures for common people who are satisfied just with the shore of the Quran sea. He neared close by the fruits of the Quran without making efforts, trying to understand, working hard or searching carefully like the scholars and nation's scientists.

Al-Noon God Mercy Be upon Him (an Egyptian scientist) said: God insisted on forbidding the hearts of the bad people from the innermost wisdom of the Holy Quran.

Arabic

Al-Zarkashy and a Thorough view of the Quran Sciences:

It is very useful in this matter to post a thorough and wide statement made by a remarkable and an experienced Islamic Scientist known for his wisdom, Imam Badr Addin Mohammed Bin Abdullah Al-Zarkashy who passed away during 794 AH after the introduction of his famous book (The Proof of the Quran Sciences) in which he said: As the Quran Sciences are not confined and its meaning not investigated, it should be taken with as much care as possible. The late applicants missed to write a book that include all types of Quran Sciences, as they did with the Hadeeth and science. I ask Allah for proper guidance in composing a book that includes what people said about the art of the Quran Sciences and what the Holy Verses had of great meanings and wisdom that will make their hearts joyful and their minds surprised, just as a key to open the book and the title. I called it (Proof of the Quran Sciences) Al- Borhan Fe Oloom Al-Quran

Al-Zarkashy counted the Quran Sciences one by one, He said:

          First: Learn the reason of the descending

          Second: Learn the occasions between verses.

          Third: Learn the intervals

          Fourth: Know the directions and counterparts

          Fifth: Science of comparables

          Sixth: Science of obscurities

It would take us long to review all the sciences which were listed by Al-Zarkashy, as he listed forty-seven sciences. However, we mention in addition to the ones before: Science of calligraphy, science of abrogated and transcribed, manners of recitation, the science of Makki and Medini and the science of precision and similarities, science of Quran Methods, secrets of beginnings of the Verses of Quran, science of endings of verses, etc.

Al-Zarkashy concludes counting of Quran Sciences saying: "You must know that each type of the Quran Science needs a long time to be studied and researched but we had been restricted in every kind according to its origin and indicated some of its divisions, as the industry is extensive, life is short and what would the negligent tongue state.

 

Some subjects of the Quran Sciences:

We cannot address each topic of Quran science in detail, as we did before with the science of interpretation. But we find that we must stop with some of those topics swiftly and urgently.

1.      Reasons of the descending:

Many scientists wrote about this topic like, Ali Bin Al-Medini, Al-Bukhari, Al-Wahedy, Al-Sayooty and many others.

Learning the reason of descending brings us to the correct meaning of the verse and shows us the wisdom of it, the text but that it might be generalized. The evidence is based on privatization; we need to know the reasons of descending in order to know the privatization of the general texts. We also need to know the reasons of the descending to eliminate some problems.

Learn the occasions between verses:

The knowledge of the link, which connects this verse to the next and this Sura to the next, is like Al-Zarkashy says a fine science that amazes the minds and shows the value of the one who says it.  This science was classified by Abu Ja'afar Ben Al-Zubair in his book (the proof of the occasion of classifying the verses of the Holy Quran) Al-Baqa'ey also wrote about it in his book (Notham Al Dorar Fe Tanasob Al Ayat W Al Soar).

Sheikh Abu Al Hasan Al Shahrabany said: The first one to study the science’s occasions in Baghdad was Sheikh Imam Abu Baker Al Naisaboory, a man of great knowledge in Religion and Literature. When he used to hear a verse he used to ask: ‘Why is this verse mentioned next to this one and what is the wisdom of the putting this Sura next to this one?

Science of comparables:

It is to mention one single story in various forms and different intervals and frequently cited in news stories. Such as the wisdom to know the difference between (and enter the gate prostrate and say: "Repentance." Al-Baqara 58 and (and say "Repentance," and enter the gate prostrate), Al-A'Araf 161.

And so on which are many types:

Many scientists wrote about the science of Comparable like Al Sakhawy in his (Hadaya Al Mortab fe Al motshabe) and Abu Alqasem Al Karmany in his (Al Borhan Fe Motshabeh Al Quran) and Al-Razy in (Dorrat Al-Tanzeel W Ghorrat Al- Taweel).

The science of obscurities:

For everything that is mentioned in the verses without specifying what exactly it is, if not something that Allah restricted it to His Good Self-like knowing which mosque was meant when Allah says (A place of worship which was founded on piety) Al-Tawba 108 and knowing which Companion of the Prophet ((pbuh)) Allah meant when He said (Who gives his wealth that he may grow (in goodness). (18) And none hath with him any favour for reward) Al-Layl 18 and 19. There are a lot of examples in the Holy Quran; it is a fine science that is now known by many.

Abdulrahman Ben Abdullah Al Sheily wrote about this science in his book (Al-Ta'areef w el e'elam bma abham fe al Quran men al asma'a w ala'alam) and so did Iben Asaker in his book Al Takamul wa Al Etmam, and others.

The Secrets of the Soar beginnings:

Allah Almighty started the soar of the Holy Quran with ten types of vocabulary, like praising of Himself, spellings, appeal, swear, news sentences, condition, order, question, prayer and explanation.

Iben Aby Al Esba'a wrote about this science in his book (Al Khawater wa Al Sawaneh fe asrar Al Fawateh) and so did Al Sayooty in his book (Al Etqan).

From the Sciences of the Holy Qur’an Al Makki and Al Medini: The benefit of it is knowing the copyist and copier. Also knowing the speakers of the Verses and so on. There is no doubt that the Qur’an Al Makki is more than what was descended in Al-Medina. The scientists disagreed in defining Al Medini and Al Makki. Some said that Al Makki descended in Makkah and Al Madini descended in Al Medina, and some said: Al Makki descended before the Hijra and Al Medini descended after that.

Others said: Al Makki was addressed to the people of Makkah and the Medini was addressed to the people of Al Medina, knowing that through conveying, and hearing, or through measuring the regulations. There are many other issues that came after Al Makki and Al Medini like the issue apart from Makkah and Medina, and an issue that is similar but not from it and an issue of what descended from the Qur’an at night and during the day and the issue of what descended from the Qur’an with the light and in honour of the Angels.

From the Sciences of the Holy Qur’an and knowing in how many languages it was descended:

It was proven in both the Sahih from what Ibn Abbas said about them that the Prophet ((pbuh)) said: “Jibreel read a letter so I reviewed it, then we increased it to become seven letters” and in another Hadith “This Qur’an descended with 7 letters so read what is available from it” Agreed upon.

Regarding the meaning of 7 letters, the scientists say a lot. The most important and strongest of which are that there are 7 languages for 7 tribes of the Arabs, as some of the Qur’an descended in the language of Quraish and some in the language of Hatheel and some in the language of Tameem and some in the languages or accents that were conveyed or heard and there is no doubt regarding these 7 letters.

Al Tirmidhi narrated about Abi Baker Bin Kaa’b that: The Prophet (pbuh) met Jibreel, and said: ‘Jibreel, I was sent to the nation of illiterates some of which are old, and the older Shaikh and the boy and the slave and the man who never read a book.’ He said: Mohammed the Qur’an was descended with 7 letters. Allah Almighty said: {And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember, then is there anyone who will remember (or receive admonition)} Al Qamar: 17.

The Science of combining and reserving the Holy Quran:

Regarding memorizing the Quran in hearts - which was the only way of memorizing it in the past. Many of the Companions of Prophet Moahmmed (pbuh), used to memorize all of it from taking it directly from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). The Holy Quran was also saved by panels and bones but was sporadic in the hands of Companions of the Prophet. However, each piece of the Holy Quran was memorized by many adult companions of the Prophet (pbuh).

      Ibn Abbas (pbuh) said: The Messenger of Allah, (pbuh) by the time he verses with numbers, he used to call some of the writers and says "Put these Verses in Sura, stating that so and so" (Narrated Osman Ahmed may Allah be pleased with him).

The full combining of the Holy Quran first was done by Abu Baker Al-Sideeq where he designated Zeid Ibn Thabit, (may Allah be pleased with him) to do so.

Later on, Othman Ben Affan, (May Allah be pleased with him) made one collection of the Holy Quran and asked all the Muslims to use it and burned all the sporadic or mixed parts.

 Science of the Quran Expression:

The scientists took care of this science because it was very helpful in determining the meanings of the verses.

Imam Al Hoofy wrote about this science in his book (Al Borhan fe Tafseer Al Quran) and Makky Ben Aby Taleb in his book (Al Moshkel fe E'Erab Al Quran) and Al Ka'abary in his book (Emla'a ma mann behe Al Rahman men wjooh al e'erab w Al Qera'at fe al Quran) and Abu Hayyan in his book (Al Bahr Al Moheet).

The expression of the Holy Quran and learning the conditions of singling is a great art and a wide science, which many scientists will fail to study it as it has many manners and conditions. 

Abu Hayan says in his book (Al Basa'er: I asked Al-Serafi about the verse (Maintaining His creation in justice (Al-Omran:18) why the word is written like this. He said: ‘Because it is a conditional word’. I said: ‘Who is the condition for?’ He said: ‘For Allah’. I said: ‘Does Allah have a condition?’ He said: The condition is in pronouncing it not for what Allah has.

The science of knowing the start and finish of the verses of Quran:

Which is like Al Zarkashy says - a fine art which allows us to know how the Quran is recited, it is very useful in learning the meanings of the verses and avoiding problems.

Abu Baker Ben Mojahed put some conditions for the scientist who wants to study this science: Any man wants to study this science must be of a great knowledge of the language, readings of the Holy Quran, interpretation and stories and the language of which the Holy Quran was descended.

The finish of each verse for most of the readers can be divided into four parts, perfect chosen, allowed enough, good understood and bad, there are many examples of each type.

Many scientists wrote about this like Al Zajjaj in his book (Al Qt'a w Al Este'enaf) and Al Dany in his book (Al ektefa'a fe al waqf w Al ebteda'a) and so did Al Omany,ebn aAl Anbary and Ibn Abbad.

Ibn Omar May Allah be pleased with him said that they used to learn when to stop at each verse as they used to learn the Holy Quran.

It is the science where we learn how to write the words of the Holy Quran depending on the font of Al Imam i.e., font of Othman.

The companions (may Allah be pleased with them) disagreed on how to written with the word (taboot) Al-Baqara 248, Zaid said: Write it with a closed heart. But the people of Quraish said: It must be written with an open heart, Othman (May Allah be pleased with him) said: Write it with an open heart, the Holy Quran was descended by Quraish tongue language (this was mentioned by Al-Bukhari and others from Anas may Allah be pleased with him).

Therefore some words in the Quran can be written with extra letters like the extra A in (or I verily will slay him) Al-Naml 21,or the E in (and giving to kinsfolk) Al-Nahl 90, or the O as in (I shall show thee the abode of evil-livers) Al A’Araf 145, or an A that can be deleted from a word like (In the name of Allah) Al Fatiha 1, or an O like (And Allah will wipe out the lie) Al Shura 24, or the E (and fear Me) Al-Baqara 40.

One of the branches of this science is to know if it is religiously right to translate the Quran into other languages and is it called Quran after translating it is it a translation for the meanings for the words themselves?

Science of knowing the value of the Quran in general and the values of the Verses that include certain provisions in particular:

For example the advantage of Al Koursi Verse, (Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal) Al-Baqara 255.

 

 

From the sciences of the Holy Qur’an knowing the sayings in it.

Al-Zarkashy says: Al Shafi’i prepared it with what the Mujtahed should know about the Holy Qur’an and he said – in the terms – knowing the sayings that were said about the Mujtahed and his worshipping to avoid sins. And he categorized them; from the advanced with Al Hassan Bin Al Fadel and others.

And this science has enough grandness as Allah said: (And those sayings we present about people and no one knows except those who know) (Al-Ankabut). And the sayings of the Holy Qur’an were comprehensive between praising, and degrading, reward and punishment, glorifying things and despising them.

Al Beheqy narrated about Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (pbuh) said: the Qur’an descended on five fronts: Halal and precise, Haram (forbidden), similar and sayings, so work with Al-Halal and avoid what is forbidden, follow what is precise and believe in what is similar and go by the sayings.

From the sciences of the Holy Qur’an is knowing the different illusions:

Whatever is an illusion that contradicts between the Verses isn’t really that way, because the words of Allah Almighty are fair, Allah said: {Do they not ponder on the Qur'an (with care)? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy} Al Nis’a 82), and the beginner needs to know what makes his worries go away, and Abu Ali Mohammad Bin Al Mustaneer wrote the book (Responding to the infidels who make things similar to the Qur’an). And in this science, the scientists mentioned probabilities with the contradicting verses: First the descending of the Makki before the Medini, then the probabilities that one of the two regarding the situation of the people of Makkah and the second about the people of Al Medina. And that one of the two is independent in its ruling, and the other includes a pronunciation and then each of their meanings become clear when Ijtihaad occurs, so this is presented to specialize what is meant by each one and other probabilities.  

Abu Al Abbas Bin Sareeh said: a man asked some scientist about what Allah said:
{I do call to witness this City}, then it was said that he doesn’t call to witness this city, then he swore in what Allah said {And this City of secure} so Ibn Sareeh said: Which of the two is more likeable to you, to answer then grant you, or grant you then answer you. He said: Grant me then answer me, he said: Know that this Qur’an was descended upon the Prophet (pbuh) with the presence of men and the people and they were the most careful to find what is not pure in it, as if they found what is contradicting in it, they hurry to comment and respond to it, but the people had knowledge and were ignorant and did not deny what was denied, then he said: the Arabs might use the word “no” in their speech and delete its meaning and in the conclusion of this talk about the sciences of the Holy Qur’an and it is a defence for it, and tools to understand and spread it. We go back and mention that we did not present but one side of it and glory to Allah who made the Great Qur’an a vast sea with no borders and endless miracles.

{Say: "If the ocean were ink (wherewith to write out) the words of my Lord, sooner would the ocean be exhausted than would the words of my Lord, even if we added another ocean like it, for its aid."} 

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Ministry of Awqaf & Islamic Affairs - State of Kuwait